Always put note numbers before punctuation; put them after only in the case of brackets, long dashes, question marks;
Use capital letters only where necessary;
The titles of literary, musical, theatrical, cinematographic, artistic works, etc. should be italicized, including punctuation marks and dates that are part of the title;
Write abbreviations in upper case, with no full stops between letters: e.g. USA, NATO, OPEC;
Put quotations in Italian quotation marks («…»);
If they are long or particularly relevant they can be placed in a smaller font, with a line space before and after the text (in this case without quotations marks). Indicate gaps in citations in square brackets ([…]);
Use Italian quotation marks («…») for names of periodicals and newspapers;
Use double quotation marks (“…”) for quotes within other quotes, in turn placed between Italian quotation marks or to highlight a word or phrase; use only the first time for words or phrases occurring more than once in the same context.
Archival and bibliographical sources
Indicate the exact name of the archive. Indication of the fonds must comply with the classifications in use in the archives where the fonds are stored and must allow the source cited to be identified precisely.
Generally the elements used for references are:
initial (or initials) of first name followed by a full stop and the surname in roman font;
title (and any subtitle) in italics;
place of publication, publisher, year of publication in roman font;
for references to a work translated from a foreign language, indicate, if considered useful, the original edition in round brackets.
For more than one author:
up to three authors, separate names with a comma;
for more than three authors use the book title directly and after the title use the name of the editor;
indicate conference proceedings or exhibition catalogues.
For publications in foreign language:
put place of publication in the original language (with the country in roman font when necessary to distinguish places with the same name);
use the original language to indicate editor/editors (a cura di; éd. par; hrsg. v., or Hg., etc.).
Periodicals and magazines
The title of the article should be in italics; use Italian quotation marks and write out the full name of the periodical or magazine preceded by “in”. After the title, indicate all information (separated by commas) required to find the article. Indicate the year in Roman numerals, the volume, folder, issue etc. in Arabic numerals.
– For magazines with at least monthly intervals, the following are indicated: volume, year, folder, pages.
– For magazines with less than monthly editions, the following are indicated: date, pages.
– For newspapers is indicated: date.
Guidelines for footnotes
Page numbers are given repeating even numbers that do not change (e.g. 231-232);
use ibid., to refer to the source cited in the preceding note or list item;
if a book or an essay is mentioned several times, the abbreviated title is used from the second time, followed by a comma and cit.; omit the initial of the author’s name from the second time the same book is mentioned.