Antonio Gramsci e Luigi Einaudi

ANNO 53 2012
Giovanna Savant

Antonio Gramsci and Luigi Einaudi
During the First World War, while forming his political views, although Gramsci supported the principles of liberism under the influence of Luigi Einaudi, his admiration was at the same time accompanied by severe criticism. Namely, he accused Einaudi of double-dealing: in the magazine La Riforma sociale, only a small number of copies of which were sold, he strongly criticized capitalism and its degenerations, while in the newspaper Corriere della Sera, he preferred to remain silent. In late 1917, Gramsci heightened his polemical attitude towards the liberalists and their main supporter, also by considering them the parties most responsible for the country’s political and economic disorganization, as they had failed in their attempt to spread individualistic philosophy in Italy, which would have allowed the rise of a genuinely liberal government. In 1919, Gramsci rapidly distanced himself from liberalism, because he deemed it was incapable of explaining the alterations produced by the War in social and economic life, and he was convinced that only revolution could save humanity from the abyss into which it had plunged. Einaudi’s name disappeared from his writings at the very moment when L’Ordine Nuovo and the Factory Councils movement caught the attention of economists and of Corriere della Sera. Subsequently, Einaudi was mentioned again, but only in the reflections written in prison, in which Gramsci strongly attacked him for his ideas on the economic crisis, relegating him to a less important position, somewhere down in the circle of the greatest unworthy intellectuals: the loriani.

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